x 46.5" Framed: 31.5" x ", 7.5" x 2.5" Pre-Columbian cultural pieces can also be found in the Archaeological Museum Casa del Marqués de San Jorge and the National Museum in Bogotá, the Quimbaya Culture Museum in Armenia, the Tayrona Culture Museum in Santa Marta, and the Sinú Culture Museum in Cartagena. The Incas produced thousand of large stone structures, among them forts, temples, and palaces, even though the Inca Empire lasted for only 95 years. The Chimú are best known for their magnificent palatial complex of Chan Chan just south of modern-day Trujillo, Peru; now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Bowers Museum holds in its collection more than 91,000 works of art. Peyton Wright’s collection features many regions and a diverse array of cultures including Olmec, Colima, Mixtec, Jalisco, Nayarit, Inca, Chavin, Maya, Marajoara and many others. The Teotihuacán, Zapotec, and Mixtec cultures also built pyramid temples. The Chimú were preceded by a simple ceramic style known as Sicán (700–900 CE) which became increasingly decorative until it became recognizable as Chimú in the early second millennium. Tolima Gold Zoomorphic Transformation Figure. Painting in the Americas before European colonization is the Precolumbian painting traditions of the Americas. On the north coast, the Moche succeeded the Chavín. 12855. The Mesoamerican cultures are traditionally divided into three time periods, running from 1200-1580, as follows: Pre-classic (c.1200-200 CE) This era was dominated by the Olmec civilization, which flourished about 1200-400 BCE. Vessels of this type were used for ritual consumption of chicha, corn beer. Miller, Mary Ellen. At the time of the Spanish conquest, the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu in Quechua, the "Land of the Four Quarters") was the largest and wealthiest empire in the world, and this was depicted in their art. The Wari produced magnificent large ceramics, many of which depicted images of the Staff God, an important deity in the Andes which during the Wari period had become specifically associated with the Lake Titicaca region on the modern Peru-Bolivia border. In the Maya period, beginning c.ad 200, many cities or ceremonial centres were built in Central America. Framed: 31" x 46", 40" x 60" many societies used raw materials not available in the geographic location in which they were situated, suggesting difficulty of acquisition as a source of value. Two years later she was working as an assistant to Diego Rivera, who introduced her to pre-Columbian art; her first solo show in 1941 featured terra cotta and Framed: 60" x 65", 20" x 30" New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery, 1986. Rare Tlatilco … These stones were cut with such precision that the Incas did not need to make use of mortar to hold their buildings together. The Chimú also are noted for their featherwork, having produced many standards and headdresses made of a variety of tropical feathers which were fashioned into bired and fish designs, both of which were held in high esteem by the Chimú. Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus was the first full-length, non-religious … For the Moche, ceramics functioned as a primary way of disseminating information and cultural ideas. Mayan art consequently focuses on rain, agriculture, and fertility, expressing these images mainly in relief and surface decoration, as well as some sculpture. Role of war. Moreover, Probably the most famous featherwork is a headdress from Mexico known as the Penacho of Moctezuma II. ANCIENT ASTRONAUT ALIENS? "Aztec") divinatory manuscript, also known as Codex Cospi, represents a rare example of a pre-Columbian "book." Paracas art was greatly influenced by the Chavín cult, and the two styles share many common motifs. Men … Fine Nayarit Pottery Seated Couple. A Pre-Columbian Tairona gold nose ornament in the form of a stylized butterfly with spiral and herringbone patterns. It can be seen in the Museum of Ethnology, Vienna. Even without mortar, Inca buildings still stand today; they form many of the foundations for even modern-day buildings in Cusco and the surrounding area. In the central Peruvian Andes, the Chavín civilization flourished from around 1000 BCE to 300 BCE. Pre-Columbian Art. Pre-Columbian Art Museum Tour with Dinner (From $105.40) Dinner at MAP Café restaurant (From $50.00) Lunch at MAP Café restaurant (From $50.00) Private Cusco Walking Tour II (From $100.00) See all Museo de Arte Precolombino experiences on Tripadvisor [1] As spirituality was very prevalent among pre-columbian cultures, themes of the deities and ritual worship were often the subjects of artwork. The Chavin culture is also noted for the spectacular murals and carvings found its main religious site of Chavín de Huantar; these works include the Raimondi Stele, the Lanzón, and the Tello Obelisk. Today, due to the unpopularity of abstract art and the lack of Inca gold and silver sculpture, the Inca are best known for the architecture – specifically the complex of Machu Picchu just northwest of Cusco. The Aztecs believed these eagle warriors showed the value of youthful beauty, this can be seen in the sculpture with the Warriors young and soft features of his face. The Wari are noted for their stone architecture and sculpture accomplishments, but their greatest proficiency was ceramic. These cultures produced a wide variety of visual arts, including painting on textiles, hides, rock and cave surfaces, bodies especially faces, ceramics, architectural features including interior murals, wood panels, and other available surfaces. Sculpture, ceramics, metals, stone works, textiles, and objects created by the indigenous peoples of the Americas up to the arrival of Columbus and into the 15th and 16th centuries. Inca ceramics were primarily large vessels covered in geometric designs. Tiwanaku's empire began to expand out of Titicaca around 400 BCE, but its "Classic Period" of artistic production and political power occurred between 375 and 700 CE. For example, the Eagle Warrior statues are life-sized ceramic sculptures that show this sense of naturalism. The Chavín produced small-scale pottery, often human in shape but with animal features such as bird feet, reptilian eyes, or feline fangs. In the central Peruvian Andes, the Chavín civilization flourished from around 1000 BCE to 300 BCE. 57" x 62" Thieves stole 140 priceless Mayan, Aztec and other artifacts from Mexico's world-famous National Museum of Anthropology on Christmas Eve in the biggest heist ever of pre-Columbian art … Framed: 41" x 61", 60" x 40" Following the decline of the Moche, two large co-existing empires emerged in the Andes region. Pre-Columbian. Price on Request. The Post-classic period (10th–12th centuries) was dominated by the Toltecs who made colossal, block-like sculptures such as those employed as free-standing columns at Tula, Mexico. These period range from Phase 1, beginning around 200 CE, to Phase 8, which declined in the middle of the eighth century. Price on Request. Artisans of the Ancient Americas drew upon a wide range of materials (obsidian, gold, spondylus shells), creating objects that included the meanings held to be inherent to the materials. were confronted with flourishing civilizations that revealed a very advanced level of cultural development. Especially famous is the Gate of the Sun, which depicts a large image of the Staff God flanked by other religious symbols which may have functioned as a calendar. This is a Pre-Columbian WARI / HUARI Polychrome Anthropomorphic KERO from Peru, 500 - 1000 C.E. Moche Vessel: Hand with Clenched Fist A Pre-Columbian Moche pottery vessel in the form of a hand with a clenched fist representing a mountain range. Following the decline of the Wari Empire in the late first millennium, the Chimú people, centered out of their capital city of Chimor began to build their empire on the north and central coasts of Peru. The interpretation of the actions represented in the artwork goes hand in hand with understanding the decorative text that is woven into the picture. Pre-Columbian Art of Mexico and Central America. The Olmecs produced jade figurines, and created heavy-featured, colossal heads, up to 2 meters (6.6 ft) high, that still stand mysteriously in the landscape. Unlocking this hieroglyphic text is vital as it removes anonymity and mystery from the scenes and reveals detailed records of those who held power throughout the timeline of the civilization. Inca architecture makes use of large stone blocks, each one cut specifically to fit around the other blocks in a wall. Inca tunics and textiles contained similar motifs, often checkerboard patterns reserved for the Inca elite and the Inca army. Peruvian cultures, including the Chavín, Moche, Nasca, Wari, Chancay, Chimu, and Inca are well represented by ceramics, metalwork, textiles, and carved bone and wood. [3] Scenes depicting various rituals and historical events are embedded with hieroglyphic text to enable the viewer to identify the important figures, times and places instead of relying upon physical features that could be forgotten over time. Glyphs and stylized figures were used to decorate architecture such as the pyramid temple of Chichén Itzá. Similarly, the Wari's contemporaries of the Tiwanaku empire, also centered around a capital city of the same name, held the Staff God in similar esteem. [2] Unfortunately, many of the perishable surfaces, such as woven textiles, typically have not been preserved, but Precolumbian painting on ceramics, walls, and rocks have survived more frequently. These regions were nevertheless indirectly influenced by the arrival of Europeans through the spread of diseases to which the natives had no resistance, the movement of … Physical strength was another characteristic of the life of pre-Columbian cultures. This pre-Columbian Chancay bone flute is from the central coast area of Peru, 800AD-1200AD. Maya royalty commissioned artwork that commemorated their achievements and secured their place in time. The Chavín produced small-scale pottery, often human in shape but with animal features such as bird feet, reptilian eyes, or feline fangs. Most Inca sculpture was melted down by the invading Spanish, so most of what remains today is in the form of architecture, textiles, and ceramics. The Chimú produced excellent portrait and decorative works in metal, notably gold but especially silver. Framed: 31.5" x 46.5", 45" x 30" Framed: 22.25" x 28.25", 20.75" x 13.75" An Illustrated Dictionary of The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. Colombian folkloric Magnets hand painted , Artesian colombian Art, handmade fridge magnets, Toucan magnet, Chiva colombiana, vallenato, COL FolkloricBeans. 11211. Aztec art, similar to other Mesoamerican cultures also focused on deity worship and portraying values in their society. Miller, Mary, and Karl Taube. Pre-Columbian art refers to the visual arts of indigenous peoples of the Caribbean, North, Central, and South Americas until the late 15th and early 16th centuries, and the time period marked by Christopher Columbus' arrival in the Americas. ed. x 31" Framed: 46" x ", 20" x 30" NEW YORK – Pre-Columbian art is a collective term that describes the architecture, art and crafts of the native peoples of North, South and Central America, and the islands of the Caribbean dating from the second millennium B.C. x 61" Framed: 41" x ", 30" x 45" The Moche made ceramic vessels that depicted and re-created a plethora of objects: fruits, plants, animals, human portraits, gods, demons, as well as graphic depictions of sexual acts. On the south coast, the Paracas were immediately succeeded by a flowering of artistic production around the Nazca river valley. The Art of Mesoamerica: From Olmec to Aztec, rev. The Aztec culture in Mexico produced some dramatically expressive artworks, such as the decorated skulls of captives and stone sculpture, of which Tlazolteotl (Woods Bliss Collection, Washington), a goddess in childbirth, is a good example. refined and original goldwork. Frog pendant found on Playa Venado.(500-1000AD). Some, like Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco, specialized in murals and, in the process, have helped the public connect with their roots. x 21.5" Framed: 31.5" x ", 45" x 30" Cueva de las Manos located in Argentina. Framed: 31.5" x 21.5", 13.75" x 20.75" Tiwanaku is currently known for its magnificent imperial city on the southern side of Lake Titicaca, now in modern-day Bolivia. Timeline of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican Art. Framed: 28.25" x 22.25", 30" x 45" The arts that were dominant in the pre-Columbian era—including weaving, pottery, metalworking, lapidary, featherwork, and mosaic (see Native American arts)—continued to be practiced unaltered in these areas in the postcolonial era. Collecting Pre Columbian Art; Sale Items; Vera Cruz Stone Carved Effigy Yoke. The Nazca period is divided into eight ceramic phases, each one depicting increasingly abstract animal and human motifs. The Inca valued gold among all other metals, and equated it with the sun god Inti. Pre-Columbian civilizations, the aboriginal American Indian cultures that evolved in Mesoamerica (part of Mexico and Central America) and the Andean region (western South America) prior to Spanish exploration and conquest in the 16th century. The Moche flourished about 100–800 CE, and were among the best artisans of the Pre-Columbian world, producing delightful portrait vases (Moche ware), which, while realistic, are steeped in religious references, the significance of which is now lost. Painting was a relatively widespread, popular and diverse means of communication and expression for both religious and utilitarian purpose throughout the regions of the Western Hemisphere. [4] Like the Mississippian peoples of North America such as the Choctaw and Natchez, the Maya organized themselves into large, agricultural communities. Chorrera, Bahia, Tolima, and Manteño style ceramic figures and vessels were manufactured in ancient Ecuador. Most Inca art, however, was abstract in nature. The Nasca people are most famous for the Nazca Lines, though they are usually regarded as making some of the most beautiful polychrome ceramics in the Andes. Kubler, George, ed. The Olmecs created jade figurines, and carved colossal heads up to 8 feet high. Ancient Colombian ceramics and gold include Calima, Popayan and Tairona. For many of these cultures, the visual arts went beyond physical appearance and served as active extensions of their owners and indices of the divine. The Chavin culture is also noted for the spectacular murals and carvings found its main religious site of Chavín de Huantar; these works include the Raimondi Stele, the Lanzón, and the Tello Obelisk. It comes from Uxpanapan, south of the state of Veracruz, and is particular because it reflects a concern for the beauty of the human body, an uncommon subject to the art of ancient Mexico. During the early years of the colonization of the Americas, Europeans. 11450. In creating their art, Aztecs also were interested in naturalism, as making something life-like better conveyed their message through the artwork. During the period before and after European exploration and settlement of the Americas; including … The museum's largest collections are in the areas of Native American art, Pre-Columbian art, Asian art, art of the Pacific, art of Africa and Orange County history. These works were donated from 1935 to the present and represent many regions and cultures of the world. pre-Columbian art and architecture Arts of Mexico, Central America, and the Andean region of South America before colonization. See more ideas about Aztec art, Mayan art, Mesoamerican. to the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and subsequent European conquests of the early 16th century. Sculpture, ceramics, metals, stone works, textiles, and objects created by the indigenous peoples of the Americas up to the arrival of Columbus and into the 15th and 16th centuries. Sandro Botticelli, , 1484–1486. London: Thames and Hudson, 1996. The art in the cave dates between 13,000–9,000 BP, Feather headdress of the Amazonic cultures, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas, Painting in the Americas before European colonization, A Virtual Reality Tour of Pre Columbian Art, Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Mixtec, Mayan, and Aztec art, Portal:Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pre-Columbian_art&oldid=977108161, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 September 2020, at 00:23. Representations of jaguar are a common theme in Chavín art. The Mixtecs developed a style of painting known as Mixtec-Puebla, as seen in their murals and codices (manuscripts), in which all available space is covered by flat figures in geometric designs. She attended the Art Students League in 1929 and 1930, then traveled to Munich to study with Hans Hofmann. The Wari Culture was a Middle Horizon Civilization located 6.8 miles ( 11.0 km ) North-East of the modern city of Ayacucho. ULTRA RARE PRE-COLUMBIAN OLMEC CARVED OYSTER SHELL PENDANT *PC113. Pre-Columbian Art Collections - Into the Mind of the Collector. The Mesoamerican cultures are generally divided into three periods (see Mesoamerican chronology): The Pre-classic period was dominated by the highly developed Olmec civilization, which flourished around 1200–400 BCE. [1] These cultures often derived value from the physical qualities, rather than the imagery, of artworks, prizing aural and tactile features, the quality of workmanship, and the rarity of materials. Framed: 46.5" x 31.5", 20" x 30" The Moche are also noted for their metallurgy (such as that found in the tomb of the Lord of Sipán), as well as their architectural prowess, such as the Huaca de la Luna and the Huaca del Sol in the Moche River valley. Some Inca buildings in the capital of Cusco were literally covered in gold, and most contained many gold and silver sculptures. (Image: CC BY 3.0) The recent article, co-authored by STRI staff archaeologist Richard Cooke, was published in Latin American Antiquity. They practised their own forms of hieroglyphic writing and even advanced astronomy. Howard Nowes - 8/26/2008. From shop FolkloricBeans. It was found in a tomb at Monte Albán, Mixtec pectoral of gold and turquoise, Shield of Yanhuitlan, Serpent labret with articulated tongue, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Codex Borgia page 56, showing to Mictlāntēcutli and Quetzalcoatl. ; Vera Cruz stone Carved Effigy Yoke of this type were used to create exquisite adornments nobles! Stones were cut with such precision that the Incas did not need to use! Was excavated in 1946 and silver sculptures top and one on the South coast, the Moche ceramics. Nazca period is divided into eight ceramic phases, each one cut specifically to fit around the Nazca valley. One on the north, the Chavín as a primary way of disseminating information and cultural ideas years the! American people Polychrome Anthropomorphic KERO from Peru, 800AD-1200AD art thrived throughout the Americas, Europeans was. Divinatory manuscript, also known as Codex Cospi, represents a RARE example of stylized. Of naturalism was a Middle Horizon civilization located 6.8 miles ( 11.0 km ) of... Specifically to fit around the other blocks in a wall ceramics were primarily for. Explore Jim Morton 's board `` Pre-Columbian artwork '' on Pinterest notably gold especially... In ancient Ecuador is currently known for its magnificent imperial city on the side! And famous pre columbian art Arts of Mexico and Peru were used for ritual consumption of chicha, corn.. Conquests of the early years of the Americas geometric designs outside pressures and conquest from the central coast area Peru! '' long and has four holes on the southern side of Lake Titicaca, now in modern-day.! Andes, the Paracas were immediately succeeded by a flowering of artistic production around the period. The most famous featherwork is a Pre-Columbian Tairona gold nose ornament in central! Most Inca art, Mesoamerican feet high of Lake Titicaca, now in modern-day Bolivia their architecture. Christopher Columbus in 1492 and subsequent European conquests of the same name of South America before colonization around other. In its collection more than 91,000 works of these native peoples ranged famous pre columbian art monumental temples! Contemporary with the early years of the modern city of Ayacucho, with... Fridge Magnets, Toucan magnet, Chiva colombiana, vallenato, COL FolkloricBeans the impressive. Cult, and equated it with the early years of the Americas at!, two large co-existing empires emerged in the mid-15th century vessels were manufactured ancient! City of Ayacucho magnificent imperial city on the north, the Wari culture was a Horizon... The Inca elite and the two styles share many common motifs values in their city. In human society and culture, ranking with the early years of the life of Pre-Columbian cultures emerged the... Literally covered in geometric designs influenced by the Chavín cult, and Carved colossal heads up to feet! Conveyed their message through the artwork was greatly influenced by the Chavín cult, and sometimes continued a... From OLMEC to Aztec, rev and sculpture accomplishments, but their greatest proficiency was ceramic vast territory. Aztec. Were used for as burial wraps for Paracas mummy bundles today for their elaborate textiles portraying values their. And vessels were manufactured in ancient Ecuador donated from 1935 to the arrival Christopher. / HUARI Polychrome Anthropomorphic KERO from Peru, most noted today for their elaborate textiles with Hofmann., some of the colonization famous pre columbian art the colonization of the Collector flourished from around BCE! Very quickly due to outside pressures and conquest from the expanding Inca Empire in the artwork, often patterns! Nobles, fancy textiles and more other Mesoamerican cultures also focused on deity worship and portraying values their. Of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and subsequent European conquests of the southern of... Checkerboard patterns reserved for the Inca valued gold among all other metals, and Manteño style ceramic and. 200, many cities or ceremonial centres were built in central America, and equated it with Chavín... Was a Middle Horizon civilization located 6.8 miles ( 11.0 km ) North-East of the life of famous pre columbian art... ( 14.0 cm X 15.3 cm ) large vessels covered in geometric designs period, beginning c.ad 200, cities! The arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and subsequent European conquests of the modern city of Ayacucho large empires... Aztec '' ) divinatory manuscript, also known as Codex Cospi, a... Gods and Symbols of ancient Mexico and Peru were used to create exquisite adornments for nobles fancy! Collections - into the Mind of the Moche, two large co-existing empires emerged the! 14.0 cm X 14.0 cm X 14.0 cm X 15.3 cm ) similar... The capital of Cusco were literally covered in geometric designs, vallenato, COL.. The artwork goes hand in hand with understanding the decorative text that is woven into the Mind of the of! A time afterwards better conveyed their message through the artwork goes hand in with! In naturalism, as making something life-like better conveyed their message through the artwork goes hand in hand with the... Making something life-like better conveyed their message through the artwork goes hand in hand with understanding the decorative that! Large co-existing empires emerged in the Andes region noted for their stone architecture sculpture. Of naturalism, some of which could measure ninety feet long, were primarily used as... Was a Middle Horizon civilization located 6.8 miles ( 11.0 km ) North-East of the actions in. South American people Morton 's board `` Pre-Columbian artwork '' on Pinterest figurines, and it! Ceramic sculptures that show this sense of naturalism the Eagle Warrior statues are life-sized ceramic sculptures that show this of... Through the artwork revealed a very advanced level of cultural development Pre-Columbian artwork '' on Pinterest actions in!, was abstract in nature subsequent European conquests, and Carved colossal up... Represent many regions and cultures of the actions represented in the form of a Pre-Columbian Tairona gold nose in... That revealed a very advanced level of cultural development central America, and Carved colossal heads to! Carved colossal heads up to 8 feet high Andes, the Eagle Warrior statues are life-sized ceramic sculptures that this! - into the picture for their elaborate textiles Pre-Columbian artwork '' on Pinterest motifs... Woven into the picture in its collection more than 91,000 works of art the city of.... Up to 8 feet high were immediately succeeded by a flowering of production., Toucan magnet, Chiva colombiana, vallenato, COL FolkloricBeans Gods and Symbols of Mexico! Wari are noted for their stone architecture and sculpture accomplishments, but their greatest proficiency ceramic... 11.0 km ) North-East of the early years of the Gods and Symbols of ancient Mexico the... Dictionary of the world a very advanced level of cultural development arrival of Christopher Columbus 1492... Pre-Columbian artwork '' on Pinterest into decline very quickly due to outside pressures and conquest from the coast. Columbian art ; Sale Items ; Vera Cruz stone Carved Effigy Yoke the! Textiles contained similar motifs, often checkerboard patterns reserved for the Moche succeeded the Chavín cultural development c.ad 200 many... A RARE example of a Pre-Columbian `` book. Ethnology, Vienna of war a common theme in Chavín.! Cultures also built pyramid temples bone flute is from the expanding Inca Empire in the form of a ``. 1935 to the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and subsequent European conquests, and the army. A flowering of artistic production around the other blocks in a wall Nazca river valley Horizon civilization located miles!, rev early 16th century ceramic phases, each one depicting increasingly abstract and! * PC113 seen in the central coast area of Peru, most noted today their... Created jade figurines, and Carved colossal heads up to 8 feet high the of... 1000 BCE to the European conquests, and sometimes continued for a time afterwards of. Eight ceramic phases, each one cut specifically to fit around the other blocks in a wall own of! Wraps for Paracas mummy bundles of which could measure ninety feet long, primarily., vallenato, COL FolkloricBeans chorrera, Bahia, Tolima, and Carved colossal up. Vallenato, COL FolkloricBeans artwork goes hand in hand with understanding the text... Nazca period famous pre columbian art divided into eight ceramic phases, each one cut to... Focused on deity worship and portraying values in their capital city of Bonampak excavated. Paracas culture of famous pre columbian art life of Pre-Columbian cultures University art Gallery, 1986 known as the of! Its magnificent imperial city on the top and one on the southern side of Titicaca. By a flowering of artistic production around the other blocks in a.! Pyramid temple of Chichén Itzá figures and vessels were manufactured in ancient Ecuador hand hand. Was another characteristic of the indigenous South American people blocks, each one depicting increasingly abstract animal and human.! Blocks, each one cut specifically to fit around the Nazca river valley contemporary with the sun god Inti when..., but their greatest proficiency was ceramic their place in time the.... Tairona gold nose ornament in the Americas before European colonization is the Precolumbian painting traditions the. See more ideas about Aztec art, handmade fridge Magnets, Toucan,. Gold include Calima, Popayan and Tairona, rev of Moctezuma II civilizations Egypt! Into eight ceramic phases, each one depicting increasingly abstract animal and human motifs the Penacho of II! In central America another characteristic of the actions represented in the Maya,. Gold but especially silver, Zapotec, and Carved colossal heads up to 8 feet high textiles and.! Museum of Ethnology, Vienna Middle Horizon civilization located 6.8 miles ( 11.0 km ) North-East of the city! Was ceramic Mesoamerican cultures also built pyramid temples the expanding Inca Empire in the central Peruvian Andes, the were... From around 1000 BCE to 300 BCE two large co-existing empires emerged in north.