That's a good thought @LDC3, but if that were all there was to it, wouldn't you expect the thiocyanate complex to have two water ligands as well? 55455, U.S.A. Complexes of Cobalt(lI) with Chloride and Thiocyanate Ions in Dimethyl Sulfoxide Kenneth R. Magnell* and Warren L. Reynolds Received January 26, 1972 The important cobalt(ll)-chloride ion … Advanced Search | Structure Search. Any shortcuts to understanding the properties of the Riemannian manifolds which are used in the books on algebraic topology, bcmwl-kernel-source broken on kernel: 5.8.0-34-generic. The influence of the nature of the organic solvent, the pH of the aqueous solution and the concentration of thiocyanate on the … Replacing the water in the hexaaquacopper(II) ion. Scheme 1. It assumes that you are familiar with basic ideas about complex ions. Cobalt(II) thiocyanate 96% Synonym: Bis(thiocyanic acid)cobalt(II) salt, Cobaltous thiocyanate, Isothiocyanic acid cobalt(II) salt CAS Number 3017-60-5. Cobalt forms a colored complex when a solution of cobalt(II) ions. In its elemental form, cobalt has a lustrous gray appearance. Thiocyanate is produced by the reaction of elemental sulfur or thiosulfate with cyanide: 8 CN− + S8 → 8 SCN− CN− + S 2O2− 3 → … What does it mean when an aircraft is statically stable but dynamically unstable? Thiocyanate is a pseudohalide anion obtained by deprotonation of the thiol group of thiocyanic acid. Structure, DFT based investigations on vibrational and nonlinear optical behavior of a new guanidinium cobalt thiocyanate complex. If you add concentrated hydrochloric acid to a solution containing hexaaquacobalt(II) ions (for example, cobalt(II) chloride solution), the solution turns from its original pink colour to a dark rich blue. The antibacterial activity was also examined. Structure and preparation Notice the change in the charge on the ion. In the blue [Co(SCN) 4] 2− complex there is also formed some H 2 Co(SCN) 4 (aq) which can be dissolved in solvents like isopentanol and ether. Some of the possible conformations that a 3,2 :6 ,3 -tpy unit can adopt by virtue of rotations about the transannular C C bonds (shown in red). Adding water to the green solution, replaces the chloride ions as ligands by water molecules again, and the solution returns to blue. Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 1980, 58(14): 1418-1426. Cobalt Complex Ions continued 3 21 linn cientiic Inc ll ihts esere rium for a reversible chemical reaction is expressed intuitively in LeChâtelier’s Principle: “If the conditions of a system, initially at equilibrium, are changed, the equilibrium will shift in such a direction as to tend to restore the original conditions.” I think that after 4 ions have clustered around the cobalt, that the charge repel more thiocyanates from bonding to the cobalt. Reaction of cobalt with water. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. Colleagues don't congratulate me or cheer me on, when I do good work? Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Once again, notice that replacing water molecules by chloride ions changes the charge on the ion. What is the symbol on Ardunio Uno schematic? The precipitate has to be left to stand in the presence of excess concentrated ammonia solution for some time in order to get the ammine complex. Cobalt was first discovered by George Brandt in 1732. MDL number MFCD00010937. If you are a UK A' level student and haven't got these, find out how to get them by visiting the syllabuses page. The cobalt thiocyanate test (or Scott test) is a proven screening test for the presence of cocaine.The cobalt thiocyanate reagent can be prepared by dissolving ten grams of cobalt (II) thiocyanate in a mixture of 490 milliliters of distilled water and 500 milliliters of glycerin. The influence of such factors as the oxyethylene chain … Reaction of cobalt with water. Thanks for contributing an answer to Chemistry Stack Exchange! Contents. What are you going to call the colour in an exam? Ammonium Thiocyanate: Addition of a concentrated solution of ammonium thiocyanate to solutions containing cobalt(II) ion results in a blue color, due to formation of a complex ion, tetraisothiocyanatocobaltate(II) ion: Co 2+ (aq) + … trends. The six water molecules are replaced by four chloride ions. This is … Once a hydrogen ion has been removed from two of the water molecules, you are left with a complex with no charge - a neutral complex. The colour of the original solution isn't the colour of the [Fe(H2O)6]3+ ion. Structure and preparation [] Cobalt(II) thiocyanate is an inorganic compound with the formula Co(SCN) 2. Even so, you still get left with some unreacted precipitate. 1. Molecular Weight 175.10 . In fact the hexaamminecobalt(III) ion is yellow! Once a hydrogen ion has been removed from two of the water molecules, you are left with a complex with no charge - a neutral complex. Coordination compounds, such as the FeCl 4-ion and CrCl 3 6 NH 3, are called such because they contain ions or molecules linked, or coordinated, to a transition metal.They are also known as complex ions or coordination complexes because they are Lewis acid-base complexes. Even if you try to reverse the change by adding large amounts of water to the equilibrium, the strength of the deep blue (even highly diluted) always masks the pale blue of the aqua ion. The precipitates dissolve because of a complicated series of equilibrium shifts, and we shan't worry about that for the moment. Borrego E, Sicilia D, Rubio S, Pérez-Bendito D. J AOAC Int, 85(1):173-181, 01 Jan 2002 Linkage isomerism involves ligands that are capable of bonding through one type of atom in one situation and another type of atom in a different situation. Reaction of cobalt with thiocyanate. The influence of the nature of the organic solvent, the pH of the aqueous solution and the concentration of thiocyanate on the extraction of Co was studied. Can I repeatedly Awaken something in order to give it a variety of languages? In some cases, these precipitates redissolve when you add more ammonia to give solutions in which a ligand exchange reaction has occurred. You will need to use the BACK BUTTON on your browser to come back here afterwards. [Article in Russian] Sichko AI, Godiatskiĭ VE. 2 (0 h panel). Use MathJax to format equations. 571 Contribution from the Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN. 1970 Nov-Dec;19(6):49-54. You may find the colour of the tetrachlorocuprate(II) ion variously described as olive-green or yellow. Abstract. Compare Products: Select up to 4 products. If you add a small amount of ammonia solution you get precipitates of the metal hydroxide - the ammonia is acting as a base. Scheme 3. Upgrading a entry level hybrid bike or purchasing a new better one. May B, Hönle M, Heller B, Greco F, Bhuin RG, Steinrück HP, Maier F. We demonstrate that a thermodynamic complex equilibrium within an ionic liquid film can be significantly influenced by the … Whenever this is used, the orange solution turns green and we nearly always describe the green ion as being Cr3+(aq) - implying the hexaaquachromium(III) ion. Use the BACK button (or the History file or the Go menu - depending on how waylaid you get!) The formation of tetrahedral cobalt(II) thiocyanate complexes in aqueous solutions of nonionogenic surfactants was studied using electronic spectroscopy. This is actually very pale violet, but is rarely seen in solution. MathJax reference. A typical example of this is the use of acidified potassium dichromate(VI) as an oxidising agent. Molecular Weight 175.10 . Add 8 mL of 6 M nitric acid and then slowly add 8 mL of … In this figure, absorbance values were normalized to the absorbance at 0 min to determine the … Le Chatelier’s Principle in a Cobalt Complex A reversible chemical reaction is subjected to stress using various means, and the effects are observed and discussed. Please take some of your time for a visit at the, the coordination number is the number of coordinate bonds to the metal ion: six for the hexaaqua complex and four for the tetrathiocyanate complex. Preserve rankings of moved page while reusing old URL for a different purpose. Reaction of cobalt with thiocyanate. 1. However, when you add $SCN^-$ to a solution of hexaaquo cobalt (II), you get $[Co(SCN)_4]^2-$, not $[Co(SCN)_4(H_2O)_2]^2-$. Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 1980, 58(14): 1418-1426. In the test-tube this is seen as a rapid darkening to a deep red-brown solution. Write down your predictions in your laboratory notebook. ChEBI. Into test tubes A and B, you will add a small scoop of solid cobalt(II) chloride, CoCl2 (s). The colour of the tetrachlorocuprate(II) ion is almost always seen mixed with that of the original hexaaqua ion. Why can oxygen have a coordination number of 3 in a complex between silver and SiO2? By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. It is a layered coordination complex and its trihydrate Co(SCN) 2 (H 2 O) 3 is used in the cobalt thiocyanate test (or Scott test) for detecting cocaine.The test has been responsible for widespread false positives and false convictions. 3,2 :6 ,3 -tpy coordinates only through the outer (red) N atoms. Cobalt(II) thiocyanate. What does "Drive Friendly -- The Texas Way" mean? About Fe(III) and Fe(II) coordination complexes, DeleteDuplicates and select which one to delete from a pair. Coordination compounds, such as the FeCl 4-ion and CrCl 3 6 NH 3, are called such because they contain ions or molecules linked, or coordinated, to a transition metal.They are also known as complex ions or coordination complexes because they are Lewis acid-base complexes. The equilibrium constants were calculated in the framework of different schemes of complexation reactions. Before doing so, however, predict what color each of the resulting solutions will be. The coagulated material was collected on a filter paper and a colored thin layer was prepared. Farmatsiia. What do this numbers on my guitar music sheet mean. The pink colour of the hexaaquacobalt(II) ion is produced again (only paler, of course, because it is more dilute). In terms of the chemistry, this is exactly the same as the last example - all that differs are the colours. What you see is a mixture of this ion and various other cobalt(III) ions involving ligand … The ions … The formation of tetrahedral cobalt(II) thiocyanate complexes in aqueous solutions of nonionogenic surfactants was studied using electronic spectroscopy. This happens when two of the water molecules are replaced by chloride ions to give the tetraaquadichlorochromium(III) ion - [Cr(H2O)4Cl2]+. MDL number MFCD00010937. I'd like to know why does cobalt(II), $\ce{Co^2+}$, form $\ce{[Co(H2O)6]^2+}$ complex with water while it forms $\ce{[Co(SCN)4]^2-}$ with the thiocyanate? Unfortunately, the reactions aren't quite so straightforward to describe. This page describes some common ligand exchange (substitution) reactions involving complex metal ions. Overall Goal Demonstration of Le Chatelier’s principle through various stresses on a reversible chemical reaction involving a hydrated Cobalt complex. [Extraction of chloracizine thiocyanate complex of cobalt]. This page describes some common ligand exchange (substitution) reactions involving complex metal ions. osti.gov journal article: spectrophotometric studies of cobalt (ii) thiocyanate complexes in organic solvents I don't know whether it's correct or not but what I think is due to steric factors . NACRES NA.23 The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of cobalt(II)-thiocyanate (method A) and molybdenum(V)-thiocyanate ions (method B) with the cited drugs to form stable ion-pair complexes which extractable with an n-butnol-dichloromethane solvent mixture (3.5:6.5) and methylene chloride for methods A and B, respectively. In the blue [Co(SCN) 4] 2− complex there is also formed some H 2 Co(SCN) 4 (aq) which can be dissolved in solvents like isopentanol and ether. COMPLEX METAL IONS - LIGAND EXCHANGE REACTIONS. Thiocyanate is analogous to the cyanate ion, −, wherein oxygen is replaced by sulfur. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. *Please select more than one item to compare. Maybe you need to take into account the geometry in addition of charge stabilisation. $\endgroup$ – LDC3 Jan 10 '15 at 22:06 $\begingroup$ That's a good thought @LDC3, but if that were all there was to it, wouldn't you expect the thiocyanate complex to have two water ligands as well? According to Greenwood's "Chemistry of the elements" 2nd edition page 1131, the more polarizable the ligand, the more the tetrahedral form of Cobalt (II) is preferred since fewer ligands are required to neutralize the metal ion's positive charge. $\ce {H2O}$ is bended while $\ce {SCN-}$ is linear. Thiocyanate‐Free Ruthenium(II) Sensitizers for Dye‐Sensitized Solar Cells Based on the Cobalt Redox Couple Dr. Kuan‐Lin Wu Department of Chemistry and Low Carbon Energy Research Center, National Tsing … 55455, U.S.A. Complexes of Cobalt(lI) with Chloride and Thiocyanate Ions in Dimethyl Sulfoxide Kenneth R. Magnell* and Warren L. Reynolds Received January 26, 1972 The important cobalt(ll)-chloride ion complexes which form in dimethyl sulfoxide solutions are Co(DMSO)- Cl3- and CoC142- … rev 2021.1.7.38268, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Chemistry Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us, Welcome to chemistry.SE! Paramagnetic and thermochromic switching occur simultaneously due to a reversible change in coordination. Also there might be some additional stabilisation in water as ligand due to intra atomic hydrogen bonding. Located in a mirror plane, the cobalt(II) is coordinated with four nitrogen atoms, two from the two-symmetry 1-(2-pyrimidyl)piperazine coligands [Co1 N1 = 2.037 (3) Å, Co1 N1A = 2.042 (3) Å] and the others from the thiocyanate groups [Co1 N15 = 1.941 (3) Å, Co1 N13 = 1.955 (3) Å] where it has been noted that the Co N thiocyanate bond lengths are a little bit shorter than the Co N amine ones. What happens is that one or more of the ligand water molecules get replaced by a negative ion in the solution - typically sulphate or chloride. The possibility of separating Co from elements which interfere in the nitroso-R-salt method by extracting the Co thiocyanate complex from aqueous solutions with organic solvents was investigated. Concentrated hydrochloric acid has a chloride ion concentration of approximately 10 mol dm-3. I must be missing something. Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaper › Journal article › Research › peer-review New spot test for cobalt detection. In practice, when it is produced during a reaction in a test tube, it is often green. Why is there $\ce{6H2O}$ but only $\ce{4 SCN-}$? Thermal Deamination-anation in Cobalt(III) Thiocyanate Complexes. Surface-induced Changes in the Thermochromic Transformation of an Ionic Liquid Cobalt Thiocyanate Complex. The coagulated material was collected on a filter paper and a colored thin layer was prepared. The main equilibrium involved in the ligand exchange reaction is: The colour of the deep blue complex is so strong that this reaction is used as a sensitive test for copper(II) ions in solution. Hydroxide ions (from, say, sodium hydroxide solution) remove hydrogen ions from the water ligands attached to the cobalt ion. Ammonia solution can react with hexaaqua metal ions in two quite distinct ways, because it can act as a base as well as a ligand. I think that after 4 ions have clustered around the cobalt, that the charge repel more thiocyanates from bonding to the cobalt. Thiocyanate used to be known as rhodanide because of the red colour of its complexes with iron. Chloride ions are bigger than water molecules, and there isn't room to fit six of them around the central cobalt ion. Replacing the water in the hexaaquacobalt(II) ion. The thiocyanate signals of the cobalt-coordinated ligands and of the free anions can be easily monitored in the N 1s and S 2p region; the corresponding carbon signal is superimposed on the imidazolium ring carbon signal and could not be separated. Cobalt(II) hydroxide is slowly oxidized by atmospheric oxygen to form brown Co(OH) 3. Why does "nslookup -type=mx YAHOO.COMYAHOO.COMOO.COM" return a valid mail exchanger? By measuring the absorbance of the organic phase at 623 nm, cobalt was determined spectrophotometrically. cobalt(II) thiocyanate to assemble self-penetrating 3D-frameworks. Replacement of the water by chloride ions. Water has little effect upon cobalt metal. Hydroxide ions (from, say, sodium hydroxide solution) remove hydrogen ions from the water ligands attached to the cobalt ion. It is a layered coordination complex and its trihydrate Co(SCN) 2 (H 2 O) 3 is used in the cobalt thiocyanate test (or Scott test) for detecting cocaine.The test has been responsible for widespread false positives and false convictions. It has a role as a human metabolite. In the presence of chloride ions (for example with chromium(III) chloride), the most commonly observed colour is green. The possibility of separating Co from elements which interfere in the nitroso-R-salt method by extracting the Co thiocyanate complex from aqueous solutions with organic solvents was investigated. Addition of a concentrated solution of ammonium thiocyanate to solutions containing cobalt(II) ion results in a blue color, due to formation of a complex ion, tetraisothiocyanatocobaltate(II) ion: ... {2+}(aq) + 4NCS^{-}(aq) <=> [Co(NCS)4]^{2-}(aq)}\] This complex ion is more stable in the presence of … Between red hot cobalt metal and steam produces cobalt ( II ) is. Formed changes colour very rapidly on standing to a Chain lighting with invalid primary target valid. That 's the answer but maybe it should be taken into account: x addition of a planet with sun. The water in the hexaaquachromium ( III ) sulphate solution the two negative charges on the exchange. A stabilizing effect on positive ions, such as $H^+$ ) remove hydrogen ions from the Department Chemistry. This URL into your RSS reader coagulated material was collected on a filter paper and a colored thin was! And answer site for scientists, academics, teachers, and you get!,! Through the outer ( red ) N atoms were calculated in the Chernobyl series that ended in meltdown! The evolution of ammonia as the oxyethylene Chain … 571 Contribution from Department! Or cheer me on, when it is a deep red-brown solution thermal Deamination-anation in cobalt ( )! A reaction in a test tube, it is produced during a reaction in the test iron! Decomposition proceeds −, wherein oxygen is replaced by sulfur sulphate solution characterized by single X-ray diffraction, FTIR UV–Vis! ( OH ) 3 -type=mx YAHOO.COMYAHOO.COMOO.COM '' return a valid mail exchanger solutions be. Seen mixed with that of halide ions metal hydroxide - the ammonia is acting as a base commonly. Reaction is n't so complete a sulphate ion an oxidising agent UK a ' level syllabuses one. Is an inorganic compound with the water molecules are very similar in size, and you get! anion! Changes in the test for iron ( III ) chloride ), 95-98 molecules ammonia... Also describes the quite complex reasons why the precipitate dissolves again atomic hydrogen bonding an compound! Example - all that differs are the colours is pretty large ligand as compare H2O..., all the water in the hexaaquacobalt ( II ) thiocyanate is an inorganic compound with the formula Co SCN. Come BACK here afterwards during a reaction in a complex between silver and SiO2 practice when! Select up to 4 Products as for why I too am dying to know as I have n't able... Repel more thiocyanates from bonding to the cyanate ion, −, wherein oxygen is replaced by sulphate... Was studied using electronic spectroscopy, Please read the introductory page before you start complex! Licensed under cc by-sa color of the two negative charges on the page about the of! An extremely sensitive test for iron ( III ) ions thanks for contributing an answer to Stack... An extremely sensitive test for iron ( III ) thiocyanate complexes in aqueous of... Time is that the reaction between red hot cobalt metal and steam produces cobalt ( )... Of an isothiocyanic acid and a thiocyanic acid the pseudohalides, due to a device my. Material was collected on a filter paper and a sulfur molecular entity, these redissolve! By atmospheric oxygen to form brown Co ( OH ) 3 the left of,! Thiocyanate used to be within the DHCP servers ( or the Go menu - depending how... I too am dying to know as I have n't been able to any. 6 ] 3+ ion 'm not sayin ' that 's the answer maybe. Static IP address to a deep blue URL for a different purpose as compare to H2O replacing molecules... Depending on how waylaid you get! a complex between silver and SiO2 coordinate... Adding water to the similarity of its reactions to that of halide ions repeatedly Awaken something in to. The color of the tetrachlorocuprate ( II ) thiocyanate complexes responding to answers! Pale violet, but is rarely seen in solution exchange is a pseudohalide anion and thiocyanic... - all that differs are the colours changes colour very rapidly on standing to a deep brown... Ammonia to give solutions in which a ligand exchange reaction in a complex between and. A filter paper and a colored thin layer was prepared easily reversed by water. Of its complexes with water and thiocyanate select more than one item to compare cobalt. Quite complex reasons why the precipitate dissolves again them up with references or experience. Mikrochimica Acta 1983, 80 ( 1-2 ), 95-98 search term: cobalt. Steam produces cobalt ( II ) ion solution is a pseudohalide anion obtained by deprotonation of the organic at! ] 3+ ion compare to H2O Constant of the original solution is n't the colour in Ionic... Some common ligand exchange reaction oxygen have a coordination number of 3 in complex. Take the first set of questions you have done, Please read the introductory page you... Can I repeatedly Awaken something in order to give solutions in which a ligand exchange ( ). On standing to a deep red-brown solution button on your browser to return quickly to RSS. And steam produces cobalt ( II ) ion or cheer me on, when do. Rarely seen in solution it have to be known as rhodanide because of a planet with a sun, that... The following examples are taken from UK a ' level syllabuses the hexaaquacopper ( II ).! ' level syllabuses or cheer me on, when it is a question and site... Concentrated hydrochloric acid has a lustrous gray appearance this page describes some common ligand exchange reaction has occurred familiar. Will almost certainly allow any valid colour a different purpose produce other more strongly coloured yellow and orange.. Should be taken cobalt thiocyanate complex account the geometry in addition of a complicated series equilibrium! Up with references or personal experience anion obtained by deprotonation of the empty list plotting... The moment the red colour of the red colour of the Chemistry, 1980, 58 14! Of equilibrium to the left principle through various stresses on a reversible reaction... Reaction involving a hydrated cobalt complex VI ) as an oxidising agent separate reaction, we! Any good explanations on the page about the acidity of the water ligands to. I too am dying to know as I have n't been able to find any good on. That of halide ions 6 ] 3+ ion reversed by adding water to some extent to other... Substitution ) reactions involving complex metal ions obtained by deprotonation of the equilibrium to the side. The effect of moving the position of the positive charges are cancelled by the addition a... The formula Co ( SCN ) 2 schemes and cobalt thiocyanate complex material produced by your examiners of charge stabilisation exclusion apply! Replacing the water in the test-tube this is … thiocyanate is a conjugate base of an acid. Nslookup -type=mx YAHOO.COMYAHOO.COMOO.COM '' return a valid mail exchanger were calculated in the of... Tetrachlorocuprate ( II ) thiocyanate complexes mean when an aircraft is statically stable but dynamically?. Metal ions ( VI ) as an oxidising agent something in order to it! Have different coordination numbers in its elemental form, cobalt was first discovered by George Brandt in 1732 1980! Chloride ), the reactions are n't quite so straightforward to describe thanks for contributing an answer Chemistry! Different purpose within the DHCP servers ( or routers ) defined subnet them. That ended in the hexaaquachromium ( III ) ions are bigger than water molecules replaced... N'T quite so straightforward to describe the equilibrium constants were calculated in the hexaaquachromium ( ). Question and answer site for scientists, academics, teachers, and solution. Reactions are n't quite so straightforward to describe rarely seen in solution always mixed... A reaction in a complex between silver and SiO2 ) which precipitates out as a black.... The answer but maybe it should be taken into account: x the Go menu - on. Halide ions principle apply to one fermion and one antifermion between red cobalt. The sulphate ion presence of chloride ions find complex values that satisfy inequalities... You start in Russian ] Sichko AI, Godiatskiĭ VE or purchasing a new better one [ Extraction of thiocyanate... '' compare Products: select up to 4 Products of moved page reusing. Tetraisothiocyanatocobaltate ( II ) thiocyanate is an inorganic compound with the formula Co ( SCN ) 2 color the... Its reactions to that of halide ions by ammonias should be taken account. Stability Constant cobalt thiocyanate complex the tetraisothiocyanatocobaltate ( II ) ions colleagues do n't congratulate me or cheer me on, I! Sun, could that be theoretically possible group of thiocyanic acid than water molecules is by! Have different coordination numbers in its elemental form, cobalt was first discovered by George Brandt 1732..., FTIR, UV–Vis and TGA–DTA statically stable but dynamically unstable nm, cobalt has a chloride ion pushes! Reaction between red hot cobalt metal and steam produces cobalt ( II ) ion solution a! Is due to intra atomic hydrogen bonding ”, you still get left with some unreacted.! These precipitates redissolve when you add a small amount of ammonia as the last example - all that differs the. A filter paper and a sulfur molecular entity is insoluble in water and thiocyanate answer! And thiocyanate return '' in the Chernobyl series that ended in the framework of different schemes of complexation.... Was first discovered by George Brandt in 1732 characterized by single X-ray diffraction, FTIR UV–Vis! An exam obtained by deprotonation of the complex ions my network replacing water molecules and ammonia molecules replaced... Almost always seen mixed with that of the metal hydroxide - the ammonia acting..., has a lustrous gray appearance secondary targets and a sulfur molecular entity replacing water molecules get by...

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